Electoral quotient: New turning point in the process of democratic building in Morocco (University)

Sunday, March 21, 2021 at 8:46 pm Rabat – The national political scene is taking a new turn in its process of democratic construction, indicated the professor of Law at the Faculty of Legal, Economic and Social Sciences Rabat-Souissi, Abbas El Ouardi. In an analytical article, the academic underlined that despite the efforts of all political and partisan classes, the national political scene is taking, like many international political models, a new turning point in the process of ‘democratic edification, in this case in the component relating to the development of representative democracy, as the main and direct entry to express the concerns of citizens through the channel of the legislative institution on the one hand and the executive power of the other. The Moroccan political experience reflects several orientations which aim, on the whole, to provide answers to the question of democracy, within the framework of a pluralist partisan model, dependent on the importance of expressing the concerns of citizens to through participation in public decision-making, by establishing public policies adapted to the democratic choice to which Morocco has adhered since independence, he stressed. Anyone who follows the Moroccan political and partisan scene could identify a set of ambitious indicators that are able to consolidate the building blocks of democracy, through the systems of constitutional and legal reforms, continued the university professor, noting that these indicators started already with the first Constitution of the Kingdom in 1962, through the constitutional amendments of the years 1972, 1992 and 1996, until the Constitution of 2011. And to emphasize that these indicators are translated through a number of projects, in this case the adoption by Morocco of many legal and institutional reforms, such as the Moroccanization of the administration, the Equity and Reconciliation Instance, advanced Regionalization and other radical reforms which continue to contribute to the rise of Morocco in relation to the countries of the Maghreb and North Africa. This is also embodied in the adoption by the Kingdom of an economic take-off plan which has enabled Morocco to attract large investments, particularly in the fields of industry, services, renewable energies and agriculture, among others, he observed, noting that Morocco has thus grabbed a place of choice among the countries which enjoy a good reputation in terms of attractive economic growth based on efficiency, resilience and sustainability. Mr. El Ouardi also said that this is Morocco’s commitment to a vast process of social reform, whose linchpin is human development, noting that many international institutions have welcomed the positive results. achieved by the Kingdom in particular in the fight against poverty, vulnerability and dropping out of school, as well as in the consecration of the social and solidarity economy, through the projects of the National Initiative for Human Development (INDH) and the Social register which announces a new cycle of sustainable social development. He noted, in this sense, that the Moroccan political scene has seen several new developments, in particular the launch of broad consultations including all political parties, whether or not they are represented within the legislative institution, to discuss the legal foundations of the electoral process. Given the peculiarity of the economic situation and taking into account a set of bets that Morocco must take up for the construction of the rule of law, it was the duty of all political actors to take part in the same table to look into the promotion of legal mechanisms that will be in line with today’s Morocco, he said. Thus, the meaning of patriotism was clear among the different political classes, who pinpointed the legal problems that hinder pluralist partisan participation in the management of public affairs, such as the threshold, the national list and the evaluation of female representativeness, in accordance with the provisions of article 19 of the 2011 Constitution and the electoral quota. The examination of these points gave rise to a broad debate between all the components of the partisan system, with responsibility, on amendments and strategic novelties on organic law 27.11 relating to the House of Representatives, in particular the candidacy at the same time to the Chamber of Representatives, the presidency of the regional and municipal councils, the replacement of the national list by a regional list, and the attribution of the first and second ranks of each list exclusively to women … The amendment concerning the electoral quotient which was introduced in article 84 of the organic bill N ° 04.21 modifying and supplementing the organic law N ° 27.11 and approved by the House of Representatives on March 05, 2021, captured the lion’s share of these debates, continued the ‘academic, explaining that this is how the quotient will now be calculated on the basis of those registered in relation to the seats allocated to each electoral district. Focusing on the consistency of these novelties with the spirit of the 2011 Constitution and with the position of the Constitutional Court, Mr. El Ouardi referred to Chapter 62 of the Constitution according to which “the number of representatives, the electoral regime, the principles of electoral division, the conditions of eligibility, cases of incompatibility, the rules for limiting the number of mandates and the organization of electoral disputes, are set by an organic law ”. This being the case, he added, the principle of the electoral quotient is “in accordance with the Constitution”. And to continue that “this organic law was submitted to the Constitutional Court as part of the pre-control of the constitutionality of laws”, highlighting in this sense the role of the Constitutional Court. The professor affirmed that the bet of political and institutional reform is a requirement of all the countries of the world and that the political parties must be considered as a major actor of this process, through the representation of the citizens and the expression of their aspirations and this, by establishing public policies capable of raising the level of public affairs. He added that the political participation rate of Moroccans is still low, according to statistics on the results of the Moroccan electoral process since independence, explaining that the adoption of such a mechanism will inevitably have a set of positive points, in particular the alleviation of political reluctance, especially among young people, as well as the expansion of voter registration to continue the democratic construction of the country. It is also a question, underlines the academic, of increasing the representativeness of women, within the horizon of reaching parity, and of giving the opportunity to the different political parties to engage in political practice through the management. public affairs within the constitutional institutions and the legislative institution, the establishment of governments from different political currents in order to overcome the state of partisan fragmentation as well as the increase in the level of competitiveness according to the order of merit . “Reform of the legal system is a healthy and desirable issue in order to achieve the goals of a true democracy. This will make elections the only battleground between all political parties on the path to democratic building. This will indeed be associated with the need for political reform, based on the competitiveness of parties and on realistic and sustainable programs ”, concluded Mr. El Ouardi in his article.